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>World War II and 9/11 Conspiracy Theories Are Right

>There is ample evidence leading to the conclusion that explosives were used to take down the three major International Trade Center Buildings in New York on September 9, 2001. These explosives would be in addition to impact of two jet airliners into two of the buildings. Consider the following from one of the investigations reported in www.benthamscience.com:

It was learned that a number of people had saved samples of the copious, dense dust, which spread and settled across Manhattan. Several of these people sent portions of their samples to members of this research group. This paper discusses four separate dust samples collected on or shortly
after 9/11/2001. Each sample was found to contain red/gray chips. All four samples were originally collected by private citizens who lived in New York City at the time of the tragedy. These citizens came forward and provided samples for analysis in the public interest, allowing study of the 9/11 dust for whatever facts about the day might be learned from the dust. A map showing the locations where the four samples were collected is presented as Fig. (1).

There is a publisher out there called Bentham, Bentham Science Publisher. They have accumulated much information, what many consider proof of a conspiracy–which liberals love to decry–that our entry into the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were perpetrated; that the attacks on the World Trade Center and the damage therein was orchestrated; that foreigners, not Americans, are deciding who our presidents shall be; and that George W. Bush and Barak Hussein Obama were mere pawns, puppets in international warfare which will culminate in a one-world society that will eliminate the U.S. republic, its constitution, bill of rights and  liberties and rights that we hold dear. In other words, this one-world society will be a dictatorship of the worst kind–exactly the opposite of why our founding fathers left England and Europe starting with migrations in the seventeenth century.

We know for sure that our entry into World War II was orchestrated, both in the Pacific and the Atlantic. FDR was persuaded (by Churchill) that unless America came to his country’s rescue there would be no independent country left. Great Britain would be owned by Nazi Germany. And after that, Nazi Germany would own America. We know that Franklin Roosevelt intentionally allowed unarmed ships of trade to travel to Europe during the early part of the war, before America entered, to offer to Hitler targets for his U-boats to attack and sink.

It was FDR’s hope that these attacks, loss of life, and devastation to our ships would cause such an outcry among Americans that they would call for the United States to declare war on Germany and send vast amounts of resources, military assets in the form of tanks, planes, and other armored vehicles to the aid of Europe. That is exactly what happened. Without America Europe and the UK would have been lost. These countries owe a tremendous debt of gratitude to America, something we hear very little of today.
France, for example, always operates on self interest.


Will the French elect ultra-conservative candidate Marine Le Pen as President in 2012? The Bonjour Paris newspaper has Pen leading in the polls. If she wins she has vowed that she will align France with Russia instead of the West. It’s all in France’s self interest, as perceived by this ultra conservative political leader. Russia has a long oil pipeline and has access to all of the oil in Russia and the Baltic areas which they are promising to protect in France’s interest.

The U.S entered the war in the Pacific based on miscalculation and misinformation. Yes, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and that brought us into the conflict. The ruse was perpetrated by the Japanese who had their trade ambassador in Washington meeting with the president and other U.S. leaders the very day of the attack. That is why it was difficult for America to perceive that we would be attacked by Japan, despite the fact that they had taken the Philippenes, Indonesia and other Asian countries and were on a move toward the United States as part of Hitler’s two-pronged plan to put the squeeze on America and ultimately defeat it and divide it up between Japan and Germany.

Two conspiracies–one perpetrated by FDR and one by Hiro Hito, the Japanese premier, caused America to enter World War II. As it turned out, it was fortunate we did enter that war and thank God we were able to persevere–despite the great loss of life on both sides–and win the war. But it was proven that conspiracy caused our entry into both wars. Why is it so hard for libs to understand, or to want to broadcast the fact, that  politicians cause these things? Yet, they are the first people to claim “foul” when to them conservatives seem prone to call something a conspiracy.

I say, call it a conspiracy if it is one, if you can prove it. For example, the red chips in the dust samples taken from 9/11 explosions are indicative of a type of explosive powder. With this evidence, it is clear that someone caused explosives to be set at various places on the towers, causing those buildings to be systematically taken down. There have been physicists who have testified of the same. Yet, people in power, including Church officials, shout down such technical proof of conspiracy as “utter nonsense,” calling it a “conspiracy theory” which it is; but today conspiracy theories have been painted with shame, ridicule, and dishonor. The fact is that people conspire to do bad things. To turn one’s back to them and say they don’t exist is like saying the earth is flat, despite evidence to the contrary.

For example, take the red chips in the 9/11 dust. 1. Characterization of the Red/Gray Chips:
 Red/gray chips were found in all of the dust samples collected. An analysis of the chips was performed to assess the similarity of the chips and to determine the chemistry and materials that make up the chips. Fig. (2) displays photomicrographs of red/gray chips from each of the four WTC dust samples. Note the scale marker in each image as they were acquired at different magnifications. At approximately 2.5 mm in length, the chip in Fig. (2a) was one of the larger chips collected. The mass of this chip was approximately 0.7 mg. All of the chips used in the study had a gray layer and a red layer and were attracted by a magnet. The inset image in
Fig. (2d) shows the chip in cross section, which reveals the gray layer.

The gray layer is also partially visible in Fig. (2b). Similarities between the samples are already evident from these photographs.  Fig. (3) shows three images for comparison of views of the same set of chips using different methods. Fig. (3a) is a VLM photomicrograph of a group of particles, which shows the red material and in some cases the adhering gray material. Fig. (3b, c) are, respectively, a secondary electron (SE) image and a backscattered electron (BSE) image of the same group of particles, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) without a conductive coating over the sample. It can be seen in the SE image that the red layer of the particles has very bright regions caused by a slight accumulation of charge under the electron beam, owing to the relatively poor conductivity of the red layer (see Discussion section). The BSE image shows the red layer darker than the gray layer,

Scientists conclude that the microscope doesn’t lie. The red materials are remnants of explosives used to take down these buildings. Tests showed that the aluminum and silicon making up the red particles were not bound chemically. The bottom line is that the red particles were energetic, that they contained thermite, a compound used in explosives. They even asked if this technology existed before September 11, 2001? The answer was yes: 4. Did the Technology to Make Highly Exothermic Nanocomposites Exist Prior to 9/11/2001?
 We find the answer in a report by Gash et al. dated April 2000, seventeen months before the tragedy:
“Nanostructured composites are multicomponent materials in which at least one of the component phases has one or more dimensions (length, width, or thickness) in the nanometer size range, defined as 1 to 100 nm. Energetic nanocomposites are a class of material that have both a fuel and oxidizer component intimately
mixed and where at least one of the component phases meets the size definition. A sol-gel derived pyrotechnic is an example of an energetic nanocomposite, in which metal-oxide nanoparticles react with metals or other fuels in very exothermic reactions. The fuel resides within the pores of the solid matrix while the oxidizer comprises at least a portion of the skeletal maFig. (29). DSC trace of sample 1 (blue line) compared with DSC of xerogel Fe2O3/UFG Al nanocomposite (from Tillotson et al. [28]). Both
DSC traces show completion of reaction at temperatures below 560 ˚C.

The conclusion, in layman’s language, is that thermite explosives were used to detonate and explode charges set at integral places in the World Trade Center buildings, taking them down to the ground in a systematic way.

It is quite evident that the crashing of jet airplanes into these structures, alone, did not cause the total devastation of these buildings and the loss of more than 5,000 lives. It was planned by outside sources, perpetrated by people–who I call enemies to the United States of America–who had more knowledge of explosives than the 19 Saudis who original investigation said perpetrated the entire event, which is a lie.

Even today, we do not know the nationality or identity of those of did this to America. Why not? Because Saudi Arabia is an enemy to America, it is quite clear. Also because American presidents want this information to remain quiet. Why? We do not know. We can only surmise that there are things going on that presidents and foreign potentates do not want to reveal to Americans at this time. Their goal is one world, the leveling of the economic playing field, and the destruction of all American institutions such as it’s way of life, its constitution, bill of rights, freedoms, and free enterprise and capitalism as we know it.

Here is a copy of the actual conclusion of the Bentham Science.com study–which to me appears quite scientific and indisputable–and it is conclusive. Thermite was used. Who put it there may always remain a mystery:

CONCLUSIONS 
 We have discovered distinctive red/gray chips in significant numbers in dust associated with the World Trade Center destruction. We have applied SEM/XEDS and other methods to characterize the small-scale structure and chemical signature of these chips, especially of their red component. The red material is most interesting and has the following characteristics:
1. It is composed of aluminum, iron, oxygen, silicon and carbon. Lesser amounts of other potentially reactive
elements are sometimes present, such as potassium, sulfur, lead, barium and copper.
2. The primary elements (Al, Fe, O, Si, C) are typically all present in particles at the scale of tens to hundreds
of nanometers, and detailed XEDS mapping shows intimate mixing.
3. On treatment with methyl ethyl ketone solvent, some segregation of components occurred. Elemental aluminum became sufficiently concentrated to be clearly identified in the pre-ignition material.
4. Iron oxide appears in faceted grains roughly 100 nm across whereas the aluminum appears in thin platelike structures. The small size of the iron oxide particles qualifies the material to be characterized as nanothermite or super-thermite.
5. Analysis shows that iron and oxygen are present in a ratio consistent with Fe2O3. The red material in all
four WTC dust samples was similar in this way. Iron oxide was found in the pre-ignition material whereas
elemental iron was not.
6. From the presence of elemental aluminum and iron oxide in the red material, we conclude that it contains
the ingredients of thermite.
7. As measured using DSC, the material ignites and reacts vigorously at a temperature of approximately
430 ˚C, with a rather narrow exotherm, matching fairly closely an independent observation on a known
super-thermite sample. The low temperature of ignition and the presence of iron oxide grains less than
120 nm show that the material is not conventional thermite (which ignites at temperatures above 900 ˚C)
but very likely a form of super-thermite.
8. After igniting several red/gray chips in a DSC run to 700  ˚C, we found numerous iron-rich spheres and
spheroids in the residue, indicating that a very hightemperature reaction had occurred, since the iron-rich
product clearly must have been molten to form these shapes. In several spheres, elemental iron was verified since the iron content significantly exceeded the oxygen content. We conclude that a high-temperature reduction-oxidation reaction has occurred in the heated chips, namely, the thermite reaction. 
9. The spheroids produced by the DSC tests and by the flame test have an XEDS signature (Al, Fe, O, Si, C) which is depleted in carbon and aluminum relative to the original red material. This chemical signature
strikingly matches the chemical signature of the spheroids produced by igniting commercial thermite, and
also matches the signatures of many of the microspheres found in the WTC dust [5].
10. The carbon content of the red material indicates that an organic substance is present. This would be expected for super-thermite formulations in order to produce high gas pressures upon ignition and thus make them explosive. The nature of the organic material in these chips merits further exploration. We note that it is likely also an energetic material, in that the total energy release sometimes observed in DSC tests exceeds the theoretical maximum energy of the classic thermite reaction. 
 Based on these observations, we conclude that the red layer of the red/gray chips we have discovered in the WTC dust is active, unreacted thermitic material, incorporating nanotechnology, and is a highly energetic  pyrotechnic or explosive material.


Notes:

30    The Open Chemical Physics Journal, 2009, Volume 2  Harrit et al.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
 The authors wish to thank Tom Breidenbach, Frank Delessio, Jody Intermont, Janette MacKinlay, and Steve White
for dust samples acquired soon after the WTC 9/11 catastrophe. We thank David Griscom, Mark Basile, David Allan,
Branton Campbell, Wes Lifferth, Crockett Grabbe, David
Ray Griffin, Mike Berger, Frank Carmen, Richard Gage,
Shane Geiger, Justin Keogh, Janice Matthews, John Parulis,
Phillipe Rivera, Allan South and Jared Stocksmith for elucidating discussions and encouragement. Thanks to John Parulis for gathering samples of residues from reacted commercial thermite.
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Received: August 12, 2008  Revised: February 10, 2009  Accepted: February 13, 2009
© Harrit et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.
This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.





 
 

 
 
 

 
 
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26    The Open Chemical Physics Journal, 2009, Volume 2  Harrit et al.
trix.” “As an example, energetic nanocomposites of FexOy and metallic aluminum are easily
synthesized. The compositions are stable, safe
and can be readily ignited” [19].
 We gather that the technology to make materials remarkably fitting the characterization of the red chips was
available by April 2000. In the same report, the scientists
noted that “polymers” can be added to the nanocomposite:
“This sol-gel method allows for the addition of
insoluble materials (e.g., metals or polymers) to
the viscous sol, just before gelation, to produce
a uniformly distributed and energetic nanocomposite upon gelation. Al metal (as a fine powder, ~6μm diameter) was added to some FexOy
gel syntheses just before gelation to produce
FexOy /Al(s) pyrotechnic nanocomposites….
These nanocomposites were subsequently processed to make both a xerogel and aerogel of the
material…. The pyrotechnic nanocomposite can
be ignited using a propane torch” [19].
 Indeed, the red chips can be ignited using a torch and
they have properties of a pyrotechnic nanocomposite. All the
required ingredients are present – aluminum, iron, oxygen,
silicon, and carbon – and they are incorporated in such a way
that the chip forms (and sometimes ejects) very hot material
when ignited. The Gash report describes FTIR spectra which
characterize this energetic material. We have performed
these same tests and will report the results elsewhere. We
note that polymers in the matrix may be responsible for absorption of MEK and the subsequent swelling which we observed [29].
 A report on an April 2001 conference discloses who was
known to be working on such explosives at that time:
The 221st National Meeting of the American
Chemical Society held during April 2001 in San
Diego featured a symposium on Defense Applications of Nanomaterials. One of the 4 sessions
was titled nanoenergetics…. This session provided a good representation of the breadth of
work ongoing in this field, which is roughly 10
years old.… At this point in time, all of the
military services and some DOE and academic
laboratories have active R&D programs aimed
at exploiting  the unique properties of nanomaterials that have potential to be used in
energetic formulations for advanced explosives…. nanoenergetics hold promise as useful ingredients for the thermobaric (TBX)
and TBX-like weapons, particularly due to
their high degree of tailorability with regards to
energy release and impulse management [20].
 The feature of “impulse management” may be significant. It is possible that formulations may be chosen to have
just sufficient percussive effect to achieve the desired fragmentation while minimizing the noise level.
5. Can Super-Thermite be Handled Safely?
 The April 2000 report by Gash et al. states:
“The nature of the wet nanocomposites also affords an additional degree of safety. In our
hands, the wet pyrotechnic nanocomposites
cannot be ignited until the drying process is
complete. This property should allow the production of a large quantity of the pyrotechnics
that can be stored safely for some time and
dried shortly before its use” [19].
 Safe handling of the malleable sol-gel material allows
easy coating of surfaces (such as steel), which the same
group, in a subsequent report, says they have achieved.
“The sol-gel process is very amenable to dip-,
spin-, and spray-coating technologies to coat
surfaces. We have utilized this property to dipcoat various substrates to make sol-gel
Fe2O3/Al/Viton coatings. The energetic coating
dries to give a nice adherent film.” “We have
prepared fine powders, pressed pellets, cast
monoliths, and thin films of the  hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposite” [25].
 Thus, the energetic nano-composite can be sprayed or
even “painted” onto surfaces, effectively forming an energetic or even explosive paint. The red chips we found in the
WTC dust conform to their description of “thin films” of
“hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposite”. Indeed,
the descriptive terms “energetic coating” and “nice adherent
film” fit very well with our observations of the red-chips
which survived the WTC destruction. We cannot determine
at this time, however, whether the thinness of the chips resulted from the application method or the manner of reaction. While the application of a thin film might have suited
specific desired outcomes, it is also possible that the quenching effect of the steel the material was in contact with may
have prevented a thin film of a larger mass from reacting.
The fact that most of the chips have a distinctive gray layer
suggests that the unreacted material was in close contact
with something else, either its target, a container, or an adhesive.
 Clapsaddle et al. further noted in their report:
“These results indicate that under ambient conditions the hybrid inorganic/organic energetic
composite is very stable to impact, is spark insensitive, and only very slightly friction sensitive. As noted in the Experimental section of
this report, in our hands wet hybrid nanocomposites are safe to handle and difficult to thermal
[sic] ignite. However, once dry the material
burns very vigorously and rapidly with the evolution of significant amounts of gaseous species” [24].
 The organic component contributes to the rapid gas evolution and explosive nature of these energetic superthermites when dry [24].
 “Super-thermite electric matches” have been developed
at Los Alamos National Laboratory for which “applications
include triggering explosives for … demolition” [30]. It is
indeed possible that such matches, which are designed to be
ignited by a simple electric pulse, could contain material Active Thermitic Material Found in WTC Dust  The Open Chemical Physics Journal, 2009, Volume 2    27
similar to the red material we have found in the WTC dust.
With regard to the safety of super-thermite matches, the Los
Alamos announcement notes:
“Unfortunately, conventional electric matches
use lead containing compounds that are extremely sensitive to impact, friction, static, and
heat stimuli, thereby making them dangerous to
handle. In addition, these compounds produce
toxic smoke. The Super-Thermite electric
matches produce no toxic lead smoke and are
safer to use because  they resist friction, impact, heat, and static discharge through the
composition, thereby minimizing accidental ignition. They can be designed to create various
thermal-initiating outputs—simple sparks, hot
slag, droplets, or flames—depending on the
needs of different applications” [30].
6. What is the Energy Release of Super-Thermite Compared to Conventional Explosives?
 A graph in an article on nanostructured energetic materials [21] shows that the energy/volume yield for Al/Fe2O3
composite material exceeds that of TNT, HMX and TATB
explosives commonly used in demolitions (see Fig. (30)).
 It is striking that some of the red/gray chips release more
energy in kJ/g than does ordinary thermite, as shown in the
blue bar graphs above. The theoretical maximum for thermite is 3.9 kJ/g [27]. We suggest that the organic material in
evidence in the red/gray chips is also highly energetic, most
likely producing gas to provide explosive pressure. Again,
conventional thermite is regarded as an incendiary whereas
super-thermite, which may include organic ingredients for
rapid gas generation, is considered a pyrotechnic or explosive [6, 24]. As this test was done in air it is possible that
some of the enhancement of energy output may have come
from air oxidation of the organic component.
7. Could the Red Chip Material be Ordinary Paint?
 We measured the resistivity of the red material (with very
little gray adhering to one side) using a Fluke 8842A multimeter in order to compare with ordinary paints, using the
formula:
 Specific resistivity = RA / L
where R = resistance (ohms); A = cross-sectional area (m
2
); L
= thickness (m).
 Given the small size of the red chip, about 0.5 mm x 0.5
mm, we used two probes and obtained a rough value of approximately 10 ohm-m. This is several orders of magnitude
less than paint coatings we found tabulated which are typically over 10
10
 ohm-m [31].
 Another test, described above, involved subjection of red
chips to methyl ethyl ketone solvent for tens of hours, with
agitation. The red material did swell but did not dissolve, and
a hard silicon-rich matrix remained after this procedure. On
the other hand, paint samples in the same exposure to MEK
solvent became limp and showed significant dissolution, as
expected since MEK is a paint solvent.
 Further, we have shown that the red material contains
both elemental aluminum and iron oxide, the ingredients of
thermite, in interesting configuration and intimate mixing in
the surviving chips (see Results, section 1). The species are
small (e.g., the iron oxide grains are roughly 100 nm across)
in a matrix including silicon and carbon, suggesting a superthermite composite. Red chips when ignited produce very
high temperatures even now, several years after the 9/11
tragedy, as shown by the bright flash observed and the pro-
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Energy (kJ)
HMX TNT TATB Al/Fe2O3 WTC Chip
1
WTC Chip
2
WTC Chip
3
WTC Chip
4
Energy by volume (kJ/cc)
Energy by mass (kJ/g)
Fig. (30). Energy release for monomolecular explosives HMX, TNT and TATB, for energetic composite Al/Fe2O3, [21] and energy release
by mass for four red/gray chips found in the WTC dust as measured in a Differential Scanning Calorimeter. 28    The Open Chemical Physics Journal, 2009, Volume 2  Harrit et al.
duction of molten iron-rich spheres (see photomicrographs in
Fig. (20) above). Correspondingly, the DSC tests demonstrate the release of high enthalpy, actually exceeding that of
pure thermite. Furthermore, the energy is released over a
short period of time, shown by the narrowness of the peak in
Fig. (29). The post-DSC-test residue contains microspheres
in which the iron exceeds the oxygen content, implying that
at least some of the iron oxide has been reduced in the reaction. If a paint were devised that incorporated these very
energetic materials, it would be highly dangerous when dry
and most unlikely to receive regulatory approval for building
use. To merit consideration, any assertion that a prosaic substance such as paint could match the characteristics we have
described would have to be accompanied by empirical demonstration using a sample of the proposed material, including
SEM/XEDS and DSC analyses.
8. What Future Studies are Contemplated?
 We observe that the total energy released from some of
the red chips exceeds the theoretical limit for thermite alone
(3.9 kJ/g). One possibility is that the organic material in the
red layer is itself energetic. Determination of the chemical
compound(s) involved in the organic component of the red
material would promote understanding. Further studies of the
red material (separated from the gray material) compared to
known super-thermite variants using DSC, TGA, FTIR (etc.)
analyses would certainly be in order. In particular, NMR and
GC-mass spectroscopy and related studies are urged to identify the organic material.
 We have observed that some chips have additional elements such as potassium, lead, barium and copper. Are these
significant, and why do such elements appear in some red
chips and not others? An example is shown in Fig. (31)
which shows significant Pb along with C, O, Fe, and Al and
displays multiple red and gray layers.
 In addition, the gray-layer material demands further
study. What is its purpose? Sometimes the gray material appears in multiple layers, as seen in Fig. (32).
Fig. (31).  Photomicrograph of a red/gray chip found in sample 3,
showing multiple layers and an  unusual light-gray layer between
the red layers.
 The red-mesoporous material is on the left in this view,
with the touching dark-gray layer next and a lighter-gray
material on the right as seen in a photograph of the same
chip (right hand image in Fig. (32)). The gray layer in contact with the red layer has the XEDS spectrum shown in Fig.
(33) in which iron is not seen, while the outer gray material
had an XEDS spectrum just like those displayed in Fig. (6).
 Thus, the middle-layer gray material contains carbon and
oxygen and presumably also contains hydrogen, too light to
be seen using this method. Since the gray inner layer appears
between two other layers, it may be a type of adhesive, binding a red porous thermitic material to another, iron-rich material. One might speculate that the red thermitic material has
been attached to rusty iron by an adhesive. The cooling effect of the iron in such close proximity, acting as a heat sink,
might quench the reaction and explain the fact that unreacted
red thermitic material, always found by us in thin layers,
remains in the dust. These hypotheses invite further experiments.

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>Japan Believes Their Carmakers Will Have To Compete Against the U.S. Government

>This is significant. Even in Japan, they notice what Obama says. They also noticed that the government has taken over the U.S. auto industry making America less of a free enterprise nation. It was the bailout, stupid. If GM had just abstained from the bailouts it could have declared bankruptcy earlier, possibly saving the company. Now it may be too late.

This is from the newspaper, JapanToday: “Obama is saying that the auto industry represents the spirit of America, so they’re not going to let it just disappear. So basically, this means that Japanese and European automakers who will be competing with GM will really be competing with the U.S. government from now.

That statement comes from: Fumiyuki Nakanishi, a chief equity strategist at SMBC Friend Securities, referring to turmoil in the U.S. auto industry and how that will affect Japanese automakers. (AP)

Quote of the Day › 07:05 AM JST – 1st April

Can you imagine how mad the Japanese must be right now. But their government has been proping up their car makers for years — whata’ hey! Plus, they don’t have unions, so how can we in America compete. Should have gone bankrupt, fired the unions and been done with it. But, no, our auto companies were not smart enough for that.

>News of Nobel Prizes

>

Japanese and Americans Win Nobel Chemistry Prize

By KARL RITTER and MATT MOORE, Associated Press Writers

STOCKHOLM, Sweden – Two Americans and a U.S.-based Japanese scientist won the Nobel Prize in chemistry on Wednesday for research on a glowing jellyfish protein that revolutionized the ability to study disease and normal development in living organisms.

Japan’s Osamu Shimomura and Americans Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien shared the prize for discovering and developing green fluorescent protein, or GFP, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said.

Researchers worldwide now use GFP to track such processes as the development of brain cells, the growth of tumors and the spread of cancer cells. It has let them study nerve cell damage from Alzheimer’s disease and see how insulin-producing beta cells arise in the pancreas of a growing embryo, for example.

The academy compared the impact of GFP on science to the invention of the microscope. For the past decade, the academy said, the protein has been “a guiding star for biochemists, biologists, medical scientists and other researchers.”

When exposed to ultraviolet light, the protein glows green. So it can act as a tracer to expose the movements of other, invisible proteins it is attached to as they go about their business. It can also be used to mark particular cells in a tissue and show when and where particular genes turn on and off.

Tsien developed GFP-like proteins that produced a variety of colors so that multiple proteins or cells can be followed simultaneously.

“In one spectacular experiment, researchers succeeded in tagging different nerve cells in the brain of a mouse with a kaleidoscope of colors,” the Nobel citation said. The experiment was called the “brainbow.”

Shimomura and a colleague found GFP in material they extracted from about 10,000 jellyfish they had recovered off the coast of the state of Washington in the United States. They reported in 1962 that it glowed bright green under ultraviolet light.

Some 30 years later, Chalfie showed that the GFP gene could make individual nerve cells in a tiny worm glow bright green. Tsien later extended the scientific palette to a variety of colors.

“This is a technology that has literally transformed medical research,” said Dr. John Frangioni, an associate professor of medicine and radiology at Harvard Medical School. “For the first time, scientists could study both genes and proteins in living cells and in living animals.”

Shimomura, 80, works at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and the Boston University Medical School.

Chalfie, 61, is a professor at Columbia University in New York, while Tsien, 56, is a professor at the University of California, San Diego.

The trio will split the 10 million kronor (US$1.4 million) award.

Chalfie said he slept through the Nobel committee’s phone calls early Wednesday and only found out about the prize when he checked the Nobel Web site to see who had won.

“It’s not something out of the blue, but you never know when it’s going to come or if it’s going to come so it’s always a big surprise when it actually happens,” Chalfie said in New York.

Speaking to reporters by telephone from California, Tsien said he was surprised to receive the award.

“There had been some rumors, but from sources whose reliability was questionable,” said Tsien, who also is an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

In a news release issued by his university, Tsien said he had set his sights on imaging and treating cancer.

“I’ve always wanted to do something clinically relevant in my career, if possible, and cancer is the ultimate challenge,” he said.

Shimomura told Japanese broadcaster NHK that he, too, was surprised, “because I was rumored as a potential candidate for the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, but not in chemistry.”

Gunnar von Heijne, the chairman of the chemistry prize committee, demonstrated the award-winning research to reporters by shining ultraviolet light on a tube with E. coli bacteria containing GFP. The tube glowed in a green fluorescent light.

Von Heijne said that kind of experiment “gets scientists’ hearts beating three times faster than normal.”

The winners of the Nobel Prizes in medicine and physics were presented earlier this week. The prizes for literature, peace and economics are due to be announced Thursday, Friday and Monday.

So far, three Americans, three Japanese, two French and one German researcher have won Nobel Prizes this year.

The awards include the money, a diploma and an invitation to the prize ceremonies in Stockholm and Oslo on Dec. 10, the anniversary of prize founder Alfred Nobel’s death in 1896.

___

Associated Press writer Malcolm Ritter and Online Video Reporter Ted Shaffrey in New York, and Louise Nordstrom in Stockholm contributed to this report.

>The Dangers of Group Decisions

>“energy” to http://www.platts.com/

By Don White
Group Decisions Are Losers:
Groups usually make poor decisions. Recently, I read a story of the millionaires who are the group that advises Barak Obama. He’s starting to turn to them again. He usually flies almost alone, with only his family or staff, from one campaign destination to another, listening to music, reading, and writing his next speech.

But this last time he had a plane-load of old friends whom he considers his inner advisory group and he roved up and down the isles soaking in their spirit. Almost without exception, they are Chicagoans or Illinois people of high standing and influence in the country,old friends and supporters.

Admirable, right? But when you examine Barak Obama you find that he lacks the experience to make good decisions himself. As president, if he has to rely on others, which he will, he’s going to make a poor president. He has never served in the military and will make a poor commander in chief and a poor president, based on the fact that he has never done anything or run anything, never sponsored significant legislation either as a state representative or a Senator for two years.

I’m not spouting gloom for America and Obama just to be negative. This is not strictly my opinion either,this is the record. If you want further backup on that, I suggest you read Ronald Kessler’s excellent article about Obama’s public and private record recorded in NewsMax entitled “Obama’s Inexperience Tough To Ignore.”

President Kennedy had this same deficit. He was young and inexperienced, so he brought into the White House this huge think tank advisory group. All of us were unduly impressed by the names of Kennedy’s advisors. They included Theodore C. Sorensen, speech writer; Dean Rusk, Secretary of State; C. Douglas Dillon; Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara; Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy; Postmaster General J. Edward Day; John A. Gronouski; Stewart L. Udall, Interior; Orville L. Freeman, Agriculture; Luther H. Hodges, Commerce; Arthur J. Goldberg, Labor; W. Willard Wirtz, and Abraham Ribicoff, Health, Education and Welfare; Anthony J. Celebrezze; and Adlai Stevenson, UN.

That was a high-powered think tank, each in every way as smart as they get. Obama, no doubt, will have a just as highly educated think tank; and so will McCain. But what kinds of decisions do they come up with when they act as a group, making decisions?

Usually, not so good. The Bay of Pigs could be used as an example. Committee decisions are usually poor. And early in an inexperienced president’s tenure, that’s the kinds of decision-making that takes place because he must lean on others heavily.

Stephen Leeb, in his book The Coming Economic Collapse, quotes social psychologist Irving Janis who wrote a book, Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes.
Janis recounts how many of Kennedy’s advisers had misgivings about supporting the invasion of Cuba that turned out so badly. They realized that errors were likely being made, but the pressure to maintain group solidarity prevented those concerns from being raised and properly addressed. Leeb said that some group members, Robert Kennedy for one, actually tried to keep information from the president that might have alerted him of the danger.

“Janis concludes that the closed-mindedness, overconfidence, and pressure within the group to conform can lead to a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment, which he calls groupthink.

A recent parallel to the Bay of Pigs incident was the U.S. government’s belief in the early 2000s that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction. Leeb said that claim was “laid to rest by America’s chief weapons inspector, David kay, in 2004.”

The Economist, in a special report on the Senate Intelligence Committee investigation into the intelligence failure, notes: “It diagonosed a severe case of ‘groupthink’: that is, that the spies were failing to test the general assumption that Iraq had a growing WMD program. To have done so would have been considered heresy, which may be why Hans Blix, chief UN weapons inspector, accuses America of positing ‘faith-based intelligence.’ “

In the next installment we shall discuss “Overcoming Psychological Barriers” that each of us have. We shall determine why civilizations go into decline and fail and what separates those, such as the Japanese and British, which face extinction but which find ways to solve their energy or other crises. We will talk more about the crisis of energy facing the U.S. today and why Democrats, in particular, seem reluctant to buy onto the idea that this crisis poses an immediate threat to America; why it has the capability of ending our nation as we know it in a short period of time, and why they believe, just as in the technology bubble of the late 1990s, this crisis will just go away; and why they would rather buy onto the idea that if global warming is not properly addressed, over a much longer period the world’s population could become extinct.

For my money, if you give me just one to five years and fail to drill for new energy and compare that to the hundred or so years that you have with the global warming threat, I take saving our nation first, then worrying about fixing global warming later with new technology, perhaps.
Part Two will follow in a few days.