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>The History of Black Slavery

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16th century Sir John Hawkins Sir John Hawkins. Repro ID BHC2755
1502
First enslaved Africans in the Americas.
1564-1569 Sir John Hawkins, the first English slave trader, makes four voyages to Sierra Leone River, taking a total of 1200 Africans across the Atlantic to sell to the Spanish settlers in the Caribbean island of Hispaniola.
17th century
1607 Colony of Virginia is founded – the first permanent English settlement in North America. Virginia soon becomes one of the main areas for the arrival of enslaved Africans. 'Kingston, and Port Royal. From Windsor Farm' Kingston and Port Royal, Jamaica. Repro ID PU0932
1625
Barbados becomes an English Caribbean colony.
1655 England seizes Jamaica from Spain.
1672 The Royal African Company is formed to regulate the English slave trade.
1698 Royal African Company monopoly is ended. The slave trade is opened officially to private traders.
18th century
1702-1713 War of the Spanish Succession. In 1713 Britain gains all of St. Kitts, and the right (asiento) to import enslaved people to Spanish America is granted to the South Sea Company. Map of Virginia Map of Virginia. Repro ID PX7335
1705
The Virginia General Assembly declares: ‘All Negro, mulatto and Indian slaves…shall be held to be real estate. If any slave resist his master…correcting such slave, and shall happen to be killed in such correction…the master shall be free of all punishment’.
1719 Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe is published. Olaudah Equiano Olaudah Equiano. Repro ID F2255
1720
The South Sea Bubble: South Sea Company share prices become enormously inflated before collapsing in September, resulting in a stock market crash.
1729 Ignatius Sancho is born (probably on board a slave ship).
1730-1739 First Maroon War in Jamaica. British agree a treaty with the Maroon leader Cudjoe in 1739.
1735-36 Tackey’s slave rebellion in Antigua.
1745 Olaudah Equiano (author of The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African) is born.
1756-63 Seven Years War. Britain gains Dominica, Grenada, St Vincent and Tobago.
Thomas Clarkson Thomas Clarkson. Repro ID F0869 1759 William Wilberforce, the abolitionist, is born in Hull.
1760 Slave rebellion in Jamaica led by Tacky.
1760 Thomas Clarkson, the abolitionist, is born.
1770s The abolitionist campaigner Granville Sharpe collects evidence showing that slavery is incompatible with English Law.
1772 The Somerset case in London. Chief Justice Lord Mansfield rules that enslaved people in England cannot be forced to return to the West Indies.
1772-73 John Stedman joins a military expedition to suppress a slave rebellion in Surinam, South America and is appalled by the inhumanity shown to Africans. In 1796 he publishes a full account of his experiences that becomes a classic of abolitionist literature. Illustration from 'Narrative of a five years expedition against the revolted negroes of Surinam' Print from Stedman’s book. Repro ID D7489_5
1775-83 American War of Independence. France seizes Grenada, Tobago and St Kitts from Britain but retains only Tobago after the Peace of Versailles.
1778 The Knight vs Wedderburn legal case in Edinburgh rules that enslavement is incompatible with Scots law.
1783 The Zong case: 131 Africans were thrown overboard from the slave ship Zong, but the case is heard as an insurance dispute not a murder trial. The case causes outrage and strengthens the abolition campaign.
1786 Thomas Clarkson’s ‘An essay on the slavery and commerce of the human species’ is published and makes an immediate impact.
1787 The Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is founded.
The slave ship 'Brookes' The Brookes ship. Repro ID F0872 1788 In response to growing concern about conditions in the ‘Middle Passage’ the Dolben Act limits the number of enslaved people a ship is permitted to carry. Even with these restrictions, conditions remain dreadful.
1789 Olaudah Equiano’s The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African is published.
1789 The French Revolution begins in July. Its ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity spark discontent in the slave colonies.
1790 William Wilberforce presents the first abolition bill to the House of Commons, but it does not pass. Toussaint L'Ouverture Toussaint L’Ouverture. Repro ID E9974
1791-1804
A slave uprising in St Domingue in 1791 starts off the Haitian Revolution, led by Toussaint L’Ouverture with an army of ex-slaves. The revolution eventually leads to St Domingue becoming independent Haiti in 1804.
1792 House of Commons votes in favour of the abolition of the slave trade but the bill is rejected by the House of Lords.
1793-1802 French Revolutionary War between Britain and France effectively delays the abolition campaign.
1794 France abolishes slavery and frees all enslaved people in her colonies. Legislation is passed by US Congress to prevent US vessels being used in the slave trade.
1795-96 Second Maroon War in Jamaica, ending in defeat for the Maroons. 'Trelawney Town, the Chief Residence of the Maroons' Trelawney Town, chief residence of the Maroons. Repro ID E9983
1795
Fédon’s Rebellion in Grenada causes enormous damage to plantations. Enslaved people seize control of large parts of the island before being defeated by British troops in 1796.
1795 Rebellion in St Vincent results in expulsion of Black Caribs from the island in 1796
1796 Napoleon seizes power in France and soon restores slavery in the French colonies.
19th century
1802 First West India dock opens.
1802-03 Toussaint L’Ouverture, leader of the Haitian Revolution, is taken prisoner by French in 1802 and dies in captivity in 1803. Plate commemorating the abolition of the slave trade Plate commemorating the abolition of the slave trade. Repro ID PY7367
1803-15
Napoleonic Wars between Britain and France. Vienna Settlement confirms British control of St. Lucia, Tobago and the Guiana colonies.
1804 On January 1, St Domingue is declared the republic of Haiti, the first independent black state outside Africa.
1807 The Transatlantic Slave Trade is abolished by the British Parliament. US also bans the slave trade, to take effect the following year.Britain declares Sierra Leone (in West Africa) a crown colony.
1808 The British West Africa Squadron is established at Sierra Leone to suppress any illegal slave trading by British citizens. Between 1810-65, nearly 150,000 people are freed by anti-slavery squadrons. HM Brig 'Acorn', 16 guns, in chase of the piratical slaver 'Gabriel' HM Brig Acorn, 16 guns, in chase of the piratical slaver Gabriel. Repro ID PX9195
1810
Britain negotiates with Portugal for the abolition of the South Atlantic slave trade.
1815 End of the Napoleonic Wars. At the Congress of Vienna Britain puts pressure on France, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain to abolish slave trade.
1816 Bussa’s slave rebellion in Barbados, inspired by the Haitian revolution, causes huge damage in the harvest season before being brutally crushed.
1817 Spain signs a treaty with England agreeing to end the Spanish slave trade north of the equator immediately, and south of the equator in 1820.
1817 Slave Registration Act forces all slave owners to provide a list of all the enslaved people they own every two years. Billy Waters Billy Waters. Repro ID E9149
1820
US law makes slave trading a crime equal to piracy, punishable by death.
1823 Black actor Billy Waters dies penniless in the St Giles workhouse. 1823 Slave rising in Demerara is brutally suppressed by British forces: 250 enslaved people die, and Rev John Smith of the London Missionary Society is sentenced to death for his part, causing outrage in Britain.
1823 Anti-Slavery Committee formed in London to campaign for total abolition of slavery.
1831 Major slave revolt called ‘The Baptists’ War’ breaks out in Jamaica, led by Baptist preacher Sam Sharpe, and is brutally suppressed.
1831 Nat Turner leads a slave rebellion in the US.
1831 The History of Mary Prince is published in London and becomes an important part of the anti-slavery literature.
1832 The Great Reform Act introduces new Members of Parliament from groups who are more likely to oppose slavery. William Wilberforce William Wilberforce. Repro ID E9117
1833
Abolition of Slavery Act – Britain abolishes slavery and provides for the emancipation of enslaved people in the British West Indies, to take effect in August 1834. The Act declares that the former enslaved people must serve a period of apprenticeship before receiving full emancipation. Originally this period was set at six years, but it was later reduced to four.
1833 William Wilberforce dies on 29 July, three days after the bill to emancipate enslaved people is passed.
1838 Emancipation of enslaved people in British territories. Colonial assemblies pass laws against vagrancy and squatting to support the planters’ interests.
1839 A group of 49 enslaved Africans on board the slave ship Amistad revolt off the coast of Cuba. The ship lands at New London, USA, where the Africans are taken into custody. American abolitionists take up their cause and in March 1841 the Supreme Court upholds their freedom.
1840 J.W.M. Turner’s controversial painting ‘The Slave Ship’ (also called ‘Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying – Typhoon coming on’) is put on display at the Royal Academy in London. The same exhibition also includes Auguste Biard’s painting ‘Scene on the Coast of Africa’. Scene on the coast of Africa Scene on the coast of Africa. Repro ID F0889
1865
The Thirteenth Amendment marks the abolition of slavery in the USA at the end of the American Civil War.
1865
The largest and most famous uprising by black Jamaicans. In a riot in Morant Bay the crowd attacks the police station and the local militia killing 17 Europeans and wounding 32. Over a few days a number of plantations are also attacked. The authorities react violently and declare martial law. The ringleaders are executed and around 400 blacks are killed.
1886 Abolition of slavery in Cuba.
1888 Abolition of slavery in Brazil.

Also of interest

  • Atlantic Worlds – A gallery exploring the relationships between Britain, Africa and the Americas, 1600-1850
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>The Certainty of Rising Prices

>The Certainty of Rising Prices
By Homer S. Schalazar

Around Christmas 2006, a friend posed a pertinent financial question: “You’re an investor, so where should I put my money?”

I told him without regret that even though I do invest, I don’t invest other people’s money. I hinted that commodities, like corn and soy beans, would do well, due to ethanol development and Asian and Indian surging demand for goods.

That was a simple answer to what clearly was a trend in the making. I also mentioned a military defense company. I look back at how simple it was to say that, and now I realize that those ideas that fall off your tongue after some study and thought usually hold some validity.

There was little for certain that I knew at that time—there seldom is— except that the American economy was headed downward sometime that year. The housing market had topped. The construction of new homes had declined. Speculation was at an unprecedented high. Why? Stocks were being priced at unjustifiably high prices.

That was going against the grain. From 2006-2008 the S&P index prices fell and fluctuated from around 1280 to 1570 and back down again.

Christmas 2007, I was wiser, and when asked the same question after having seen commodities continue to rise globally as Jim Rogers had forewarned. He had touted them as his major holding, but as every good trader knows you can’t live and die on someone else’s wisdom. I had to lean on only one thing—my own judgment—this time in the light of what seemed obvious.

As an investor there are times that you have nothing except your own judgment and ability to make a decision. Hopefully, experience helps us make prudent choices.

I was faced with the question:. “Am I too late?”

My advice in every investment decision, especially real estate, is to invest in what you understand and have studied well enough to reach a conclusion from experience. Because of the volatility of everything, of necessity it must concern a time frame in which you are able to finance your decisions.

These decisions will come with opportunity costs as life goes on. Holding some real estate, grain, oil, or gold seems like good advice, depending on individual financial constraints. Right now it is obvious that it would have been a great play many months ago to have invested in gold.

There is one constant. Each investor must determine his/her own risk tolerance.

Globally, the impact that China and India will have on commodity trends in transportation, and household heating, cooling, cooking, and using electricity warrants consideration.

Stephen Leeb and Glen Strathy wrote a book called The Coming Economic Collapse: How You Can Thrive When Oil Costs $200 a Barrel. They think there is a real possibility of $200 per barrel oil and $10 per gallon gasoline in the near future. They say that the fundamentals behind the rising prices are very strong, simply because supplies are insufficient to meet future global demand. China and India together will surpass U.S. consumption of oil at a rate that in ten years will seem unbearable, unless we somehow disconnect our demand from oil supplies from countries like Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Nigeria, and others that are subject to terrorism and political uncertainty. The U.S. must find alternative energy sources. China and India are growing so fast that they will surpass U.S. energy demand, and the United States will no longer be the world’s economic growth driver. The U.S. economy will plateau in growth, while China and India will continue to grow at a progressive rate.

Alternative energy stocks, gold, and commodity futures will help to energize investors’ financial accounts as these emerging economies feed growing populations. Also, stocks held for energy conservation investments, and currencies as a defensive investment strategy against inflation are recommended by Leeb and Strathy. Stocks like those that have fueled the American economic expansion during the 1970s to present times will also make these emerging economies strong.

I can only think of one scenario worse than rising inflation and high unemployment for the American people. This danger is embodied in this year’s presidential election, electing the wrong man. But perhaps this time Americans will learn to trust their values and core beliefs.

>Dubai Goes To Hollywood For Prospects

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Here’s the latest Wall Street Journal Real Estate Stories. Click for the complete stories:

June 9, 2008 — 9:14 a.m. EDT
LandSource Files for Bankruptcy
A land venture involving Calpers filed for bankruptcy in one of the biggest land deals to sour in the housing bust.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121298363815456607.html?mod=djemRealEstate

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A Lure to Dubai: Celebrity Endorsers
Property developers in the United Arab Emirates are increasingly turning to American and European celebrities to help sell grandiose properties to wealthy consumers.

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121297409965756057.html?mod=djemRealEstate

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Skiers Boost Tourism in Japan
Japan’s regions are mostly failing economically and losing population. But in Hirafu, in Japan’s large northern island of Hokkaido, land prices are soaring and the local economy is perking up as foreigner-driven property development rides a boom of ski and snowboard tourists.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121280151346054055.html?mod=djemRealEstate

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Keeping the Wrecking Ball at Bay
[Go to rticle]
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121270208588249965.html?mod=djemRealEstate
One Raleigh neighborhood is an extreme example of an effort to save old houses rather than tear them down. A nonprofit group is moving houses dating from the 1940s to 1960s, placing them on new foundations and fitting them with identical front porches.
• Video: Recycling Homes

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Sheriff Takes Law Into His Own Hands
These days, Philadelphia Sheriff John Green is best known around town for the law he won’t enforce. This spring, he refused to hold a court-ordered foreclosure auction, raising eyebrows among lenders and their attorneys, who accuse him of shirking his duty to enforce legal contracts.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121271135166050537.html?mod=djemRealEstate

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Housing Pain Hits Prime Borrowers
Mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures continued to surpass record levels in the first quarter, as the prolonged decline in home prices and shifting economic conditions trapped a growing number of prime borrowers.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121267502895448531.html?mod=djemRealEstate

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A DHL Founder Asks $32 Million for Ranches
[go to article]
A founder of DHL is asking for $17 million for his horse ranch and $15 million for a fishing property. A property that’s been linked to “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” is on the market for $6 million, plus more. Photos
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121268896470149171.html?mod=djemRealEstate

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Housing Supply Declined in May
The supply of homes available for sale in major metropolitan areas declined slightly in May, but an ample supply remains, new data show.
• See sortable city-by-city inventory data
• Housing Blog: Study Sees More Hurt Ahead for Builders
• Home Foreclosures, Delinquencies Hit Record
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121263999540847883.html?mod=djemRealEstate

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Local Banks Regain Mortgage Business
Some community banks are regaining market share as aggressive brokers and national lenders scale back or go out of business.
• Interactive: Housing Inventory Declines Slightly

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121263038561546739.html?mod=djemRealEstate

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The Vegetable Patch Takes Root
[Go to article]
Homeowners are growing their own food as consumers balk at the rising cost of groceries. They’re building raised vegetable beds, turning their spare time over to gardening, and doing battle with insect pests.

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121262319456246841.html?mod=djemRealEstate

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Home Depot Chief Renovates
When Frank Blake became Home Depot’s CEO, he found himself saddled with a renovation project. Despite dwindling home sales and limits on spending, he has been making changes in both style and substance.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121261744065946601.html?mod=djemRealEstate

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Housing Slump Hits Latino Workers
Hispanics who provided the bulk of the construction work force during the housing boom are suffering as many of those jobs evaporate, according to a new study. However, there are no signs Hispanics are quitting the U.S. labor market.

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121258976348245061.html?mod=djemRealEst
ate

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Ed McMahon May Lose Beverly Hills Home
[go to article]
Ed McMahon faces the possible loss of his Beverly Hills home to a foreclosure action initiated by a unit of Countrywide Financial.

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121254369208443705.html?mod=djemRealEstate